Can Python Web Applications Be Tested Using Selenium?

Python is currently more popular than other modern programming languages. The interpreted and object-oriented programming language is also hugely popular among developers across the world as a strong server side scripting language. As Python enables developers to express concepts by writing less and readable code, it becomes easier for programmers to reduce the development time significantly. At the same time, the developers also have option to use popular web frameworks like Django to create high-performing and complex Python web applications rapidly. However, the developers still need to assess the look, feel and performance of the Python web application thoroughly to boost its popularity and profitability.

While testing the internet applications the developers have option to choose from a number of browser automation tools like PAMIE, PyXPCOM, windmill, SST and Selenium. But most developers prefer Selenium to other frameworks to test their Python web applications efficiently. Unlike other web browser automation tools, Selenium allows testing professionals to write test scripts in a number of languages ​​including Python, C #, Java, PHP, Ruby and Python. So the testers have option to test the Python web application by writing test scripts in Python. There are also a number of reasons why developers across the world use Selenium for testing Python web applications.

Why QA Professionals Prefer Using Selenium for Testing Python Web Applications?

Supports Major Operating Systems and Web Browsers

At present, Selenium supports all major operating systems and web browsers. The framework currently supports both Microsoft Windows and Linux. Likewise, it is compatible with most popular web browsers like Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari and Opera. The compatibility makes it easier for QA professionals to test the Python web application tools across multiple platforms and web browsers without writing separate codes, or using additional test automation tools. Selenium further comes with features to generate and execute test scripts automatically across different web browsers and systems simultaneously.

Allows Users to Create Complete Test Automation Suite

The Selenium testing professionals can create a complete test automation suite by combining Selenium WebDriver and Selenium IDE. They can use Selenium WebDriver to quickly create browser-based regression automation suites and tests. Further, they can scale and distribute the test scripts across multiple environments. The Selenium IDE, on the other hand, makes it easier for testers to create bug-reproduction scripts rapidly. Thus, the QA professionals can combine distinct parts of Selenium to create a complete test automation tool, without requiring any licensed or third-party APIs.

Executes Tests Faster

To identify all bugs and performance issues in the web applications, QA professionals have to perform tests repeatedly and frequently. But the testers also have to complete all tests within a limited amount of time. Selenium allows testing professionals to take advantage of cloud-based testing grids to boost the performance of their test runs. In addition to optimizing the test infrastructure, these tools further enable testers to run parallel tests. Thus, it becomes easier for the testers to execute tests quickly and repeatedly. The testers also have option to choose from several open source cloud-based functional testing grids to avoid increased project overheads.

Requires Basic HTML Concepts

Selenium supports a number of modern programming languages. But while testing a Python web application, it requires only basic HTML concepts. HTML is used for describing a web page, whereas individual HTML tags represent document content. Thus, HTML tags decide how the content is appears on the web browsers. Selenium divides the HTML elements or attributes into three distinct categories, ie, single, group and customized. It locates single elements by their id, link or link text, whereas the group elements are identified based on combined values ​​or index property. So it becomes easier for testers to find out the location of the defect or bug. The feature makes it easier for them to identify the exact bugs and performance issues quickly.

Helps Testers to Address Maintainability Issues

In addition to creating and executing test scripts quickly, QA professionals are also required to maintain the test cases effectively. Selenium helps testers to overcome maintainability issues by structuring the automated test code using a pattern called page objects. The page objects focuses on the structure of HTML code of a particular web page instead of checking how the services are implemented. Thus, testers can take advantage of page objects to locate the code easily, navigate between various web pages smoothly, and making changes only once. As most Selenium code will be located inside page objects, the testers can easily increase the code base without adding fresh Selenium code.

Provides Selenium Python API

As noted earlier, Python supports several programming languages ​​including Python. So the testers have option to write test scripts in Python. Also, they can use Selenium Python API to write acceptance and functional tests by accessing Selenium WebDrivers like common, support, chrome, Firefox, ie, remote and phantomjs. The most recent version of the API further supports multiple versions of Python including 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 2.7. It can further be accessed simply by downloading and installing the Selenium Python bindings. Thus, an organization can leverage the skills of existing Python programmers to perform acceptance and functional testing efficiently.

Works with Several Testing Frameworks

While testing the Python web application with Selenium, QA professionals have option to use a number of test framework. At present, the portable web browser automation framework works with Pytest, PyUnit, unittest, and robot framework. As a part of Python 2.1 standard library, PyUnit enables testers to write tests easily, and execute multiple tests in text or GUI mode. Likewise, pytest comes with a number of features that help testers to write better programs. So the QA professional can take advantage of these test frameworks to ensure that the Python web application delivers flawless user experience across many web browsers.

Python is an open source programming language, whereas Selenium is an open source web browser automation tool. Thus, organizations can use the programming language and web testing tool together to bring down the project costs. However, the combination will further enable them test the application across major web browsers within a stipulated amount of time.

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Eight Reasons Why You Can Call Yourself a Nurse Detective

Like a good mystery? Love to see a detective put together clues to solve a crime? You may not realize it, but being a nurse is like being a detective. I compared what you need to be a detective with what you need to be a nurse and found these eight ways the two careers are similar:

1. Both must be knowledgeable

Detectives know their territory. They figure out how to get around, what type of soil is found where and when it rained. They can look at a person's shoes or car tires and know where he has been.

Nurses' territory is their patient. They must find out: Why is he here? What signs and symptoms do I need to watch for to prevent complications from his illness? What goals must he and I meet for him to get better?

2. Both need to cultivate an eye for detail

Detectives observe their surroundings carefully, even when they think there is nothing special to observe, because they never know what might end up being important to solve their case. Nurses observe even the littlest thing about a patient because they know every bit of information may make a difference in that patient's care or recovery.

3. Both must learn to read people faces.

Detectives and Nurses watch body language and notice whether it seems natural and agrees with their words. Criminals might be lying to avoid incrimination. Patients might be hiding the truth because of embarrassment, lack of understanding or cultural beliefs. A patient may say he's not in pain, but have facial grimacing.

4. Both get good at searching for information.

Detectives and nurses must know what they don't know and know where to find it. Detectives go to the public record. Nurses go to the patient's chart.

5. Both skillfully ask questions.

Detectives and Nurses get to the heart of a matter without putting somebody on their guard or making them unnecessarily uncomfortable.

6. Both document well

Detectives keep careful notes of what they find. Nurses know if they didn't document what they did, as far as the world is concerned, they did not do it.

7. Both become techno-savvy

Detectives and Nurses know how to use a computer and find information via the internet.

8. Both value their team

Detectives and Nurses have trustworthy teams to back them up and help get the job done. Colleagues are important to solve the crime and give high quality care to patients. Neither profession can do it alone!

Both Nurses and Detectives must possess good observational and critical thinking skills to gather evidence, sort through facts and examine details to come to conclusions. Detectives solve crimes to get criminals off the streets. Nurses solve problems to prevent illness and to assist people recover from illness. So if you are a LPN or RN, feel free to start calling yourself a Nurse Detective.

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The Car Rental Industry

Market Overview

The car rental industry is a multi-billion dollar sector of the US economy. The US segment of the industry averages about $ 18.5 billion in revenue a year. Today, there are approximately 1.9 million rental vehicles that service the US segment of the market. In addition, there are many rental agencies besides the industry leaders that subdivide the total revenue, namely Dollar Thrifty, Budget and Vanguard. Unlike other mature service industries, the rental car industry is highly consolidated which naturally puts potential new comers at a cost-disadvantage since they face high input costs with reduced possibility of economies of scale. Moreover, most of the profit is generated by a few firms including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis. For the fiscal year of 2004, Enterprise generated $ 7.4 billion in total revenue. Hertz came in second position with about $ 5.2 billion and Avis with $ 2.97 in revenue.

Level of Integration

The rental car industry faces a completely different environment than it did five years ago. According to Business Travel News, vehicles are being rented until they have accumulated 20,000 to 30,000 miles until they are relegated to the used car industry whereas the turn-around mileage was 12,000 to 15,000 miles five years ago. Because of slow industry growth and narrow profit margin, there is no imminent threat to backward integration within the industry. In fact, among the industry players only Hertz is vertically integrated through Ford.

Scope of Competition

There are many factors that shape the competitive landscape of the car rental industry. Competition comes from two main sources throughout the chain. On the vacation consumer's end of the spectrum, competition is fierce not only because the market is saturated and well guarded by industry leader Enterprise, but competitors operate at a cost disadvantage along with smaller market shares since enterprise has established a network of dealers over 90 percent the leisure segment. On the corporate segment, on the other hand, competition is very strong at the airports since that segment is under tight supervision by Hertz. Because the industry underwent a massive economic downfall in recent years, it has upgraded the scale of competition within most of the companies that survived. Competitively speaking, the rental car industry is a war-zone as most rental agencies including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis among the major players engage in a battle of the fittest.

Growth

Over the past five years, most firms have been working towards enhancing their fleet sizes and increasing the level of profitability. Enterprise is currently the company with the largest fleet in the US has added 75,000 vehicles to its fleet since 2002 which help increase its number of facilities to 170 at the airports. Hertz, on the other hand, has added 25,000 vehicles and broadened its international presence in 150 counties as opposed to 140 in 2002. In addition, Avis has increased its fleet from 210,000 in 2002 to 220,000 despite recent economic adversities. Over the years following the economic downturn, although most companies throughout the industry were struggling, Enterprise among the industry leaders had been growing steadily. For example, annual sales reached $ 6.3 in 2001, $ 6.5 in 2002, $ 6.9 in 2003 and $ 7.4 billion in 2004 which translated into a growth rate of 7.2 percent a year for the past four years. Since 2002, the industry has started to regain its footing in the sector as overall sales grew from $ 17.9 billion to $ 18.2 billion in 2003. According to industry analysts, the better days of the rental car industry have yet to come. Over the course of the next several years, the industry is expected to experience accelerated growth valued at $ 20.89 billion each year following 2008 "which equates to a CAGR of 2.7% [increase] in the 2003-2008 period.”

Distribution

Over the past few years the rental car industry has made a great deal of progress to facilitate it distribution processes. Today, there are approximately 19,000 rental locations yielding about 1.9 million rental cars in the US. Because of the value abundant number of car rental locations in the US, strategic and tactical approaches are taken into account in order to insure proper distribution throughout the industry. Distribution takes place within two interrelated segments. On the corporate market, the cars are distributed to airports and hotel surroundings. On the leisure segment, on the other hand, cars are distributed to agency owned facilities that are conveniently located within most major roads and metropolitan areas.

In the past, managers of rental car companies used to rely on gut-feelings or intuitive guesses to make decisions about how many cars to have in a particular fleet or the utilization level and performance standards of keeping certain cars in one fleet. With that methodology, it was very difficult to maintain a level of balance that would satisfy consumer demand and the desired level of profitability. The distribution process is fairly simple throughout the industry. To begin with, managers must determine the number of cars that must be on inventory on a daily basis. Because a very noticeable problem arises when too many or not enough cars are available, most car rental companies including Hertz, Enterprise and Avis, use a "pool" which is a group of independent rental facilities that share a fleet of vehicles. the pools in place, rental locations operate more efficiently since they reduce the risk of low inventory if not eliminate rental car shortages.

Market Segmentation

Most companies throughout the chain make a profit based of the type of cars that are rented. The rental cars are categorized into economy, compact, intermediate, premium and luxury. Among the five categories, the economy sector yields the most profit. For instance, the economy segment by itself is responsible for 37.7 percent of the total market revenue in 2004. In addition, the compact segment accounted for 32.3 percent of overall revenue. The rest of the other categories covers the remaining 30 percent for the US segment.

Historical Levels of Profitability

The overall profitability of the car rental industry has been shrinking in recent years. Over the past five years, the industry has been struggling just like the rest of the travel industry. In fact, between the years 2001 and 2003 the US market has experienced a moderate reduction in the level of profitability. Specifically, revenue fell from $ 19.4 billion in 2000 to $ 18.2 billion in 2001. Subsequently, the overall industry revenue eroded further to $ 17.9 billion in 2002; an amount that is minimally higher than $ 17.7 billion which is the overall revenue for the year 1999. In 2003, the industry experienced a barely noticeable increase which brought profit to $ 18.2 billion. As a result of the economic downturn in recent years, some of the smaller players that were highly dependent on the airline industry have done a great deal of strategy realignments as a way of preparing their companies to cope with eventual economic adversities that may surround the industry . For the year 2004, on the other hand, the economic situation of most firms have gradually improved throughout the industry since most rental agencies have returned far greater profits relative to the anterior years. For instance, Enterprise realized revenues of $ 7.4 billion; Hertz returned revenue of $ 5.2 billion and Avis with $ 2.9 billion in revenue for the fiscal year of 2004. According to industry analysts, the rental car industry is expected to experience steady growth of 2.6 percent in revenue over the next several years which translates into an increase in profit.

Competitive Rivalry Among Sellers

There are many factors that drive competition within the car rental industry. Over the past few years, broadening fleet sizes and increasing profitability has been the focus of most companies within the car rental industry. Enterprise, Hertz and Avis among the leaders have been growing both in sales and fleet sizes. In addition, competition intensifies as firms are constantly trying to improve their current conditions and offer more to consumers. Enterprise has nearly doubled its fleet size since 1993 to approximately 600,000 cars today. Because the industry operates on such narrow profit margins, price competition is not a factor; However, most companies are actively involved in creating values ​​and providing a range of amenities from technological gadgets to even free rental to satisfy customers. Hertz, for example, integrates its Never-Lost GPS system within its cars. Enterprise, on the other hand, uses sophisticated yield management software to manage its fleets.

Finally, Avis uses its OnStar and Skynet system to better serve the consumer base and offers free weekend rental if a customer rents a car for five consecutive days further, the consumer base of the rental car industry has relatively low to no switching cost. Conversely, rental agencies face high fixed operating costs including property rental, insurance and maintenance. Consequently, rental agencies are sensitively pricing there rental cars just to recover operating costs and adequately meet their customers demands. Furthermore, because the industry experienced slow growth in recent years due to economic stagnation that resulted in a massive decline in both corporate travel and the leisure sector, most companies including the industry leaders are aggressively trying to reposition their firms by gradually lessening the dependency level on the airline industry and regaining their footing in the leisure competitive arena.

The Potential Entry of new Competitors

Entering the car rental industry puts new comers at a serious disadvantage. Over the past few years following the economic downturn of 2001, most major rental companies have started increasing their market shares in the vacation sector of the industry as a way of insuring stability and lowering the level of dependency between the airline and the car rental industry. While this trend has engendered long term success for the existing firms, it has heightened the competitive landscape for new comers. Because of the severity of competition, existing firms such as Enterprise, Hertz and Avis carefully monitor their competitive radars to anticipate Sharpe retaliatory strikes against new entrants. Another barrier to entry is created because of the saturation level of the industry.

For example, Enterprise has taken the first mover advantage with its 6000 facilities by saturating the leisure segment determining not only high restrictions on the most common distribution channels, but also high resource requirements for new firms. Today, Enterprise has a rental location within 15 miles of 90 percent of the US population. Because of the network of dealers Enterprise has established around the nation, it has become relatively stable, more recession proof and most importantly, less reliant on the airline industry compared to its competitors. Hertz, on the other hand, is utilizing the full spectrum of its 7200 stores to secure its position in the marketplace. Basically, the emergence of most of the industry leaders into the leisure market not only drives rivalry, but also it varies directly with the level of complexity of entering the car rental industry.

The Threat of Substitute

There are many substitutes available for the car rental industry. From a technological standpoint, renting a car to go the distance for a meeting is a less attractive alternative as opposed to video conferencing, virtual teams and collaboration software with which a company can immediately setup a meeting with its employees from anywhere around the world at a cheaper cost. In addition, there are other alternatives including taking a cab which is a satisfactory substitute relative to quality and switching cost, but it may not be as attractively priced as a rental car for the course of a day or more. While public transportation is the most cost efficient of the alternatives, it is more costly in terms of the process and time it takes to reach one's destination. Finally, because flying offers convenience, speed and performance, it is a very enticing substitute; However, it is an unattractive alternative in terms of price relative to renting a car. On the business segment, car rental agencies have more protection against substitutes since many companies have implemented travel policies that establish the parameters of when renting a car or using a substitute is the best course of action.

According to Tracy Esch, an Advantage director of marketing operations, her company rents cars up to a 200-mile trip before considering an alternative. Basically, the threat of substitute is reasonably low in the car rental industry since the effects of the substitute products have do not pose a significant threat of profit erosion throughout the industry.

The Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Supplier power is low in the car rental industry. Because of the availability of substitutes and the level of competition, suppliers do not have a great deal of influence in the terms and conditions of supplying the rental cars. Because the rental cars are usually purchased in bulk, rental car agents have significant influence over the terms of the sale since they possess the ability to play one supplier against another to lower the sales price. Another factor that reduces supplier power is the absence of switching cost. That is, buyers are not affected from purchasing from one supplier over another and most importantly, changing to different supplier's products is barely noticeable and does not affect consumer's rental choices.

The Bargaining Power of Buyers

While the leisure sector has little or no power, the business segment possesses a significant amount of influence in the car rental industry. An interesting trend that is currently underway throughout the industry is forcing car rental companies to adapt to the needs of corporate travelers. This trend significantly reduces supplier power or the rental firms' power and increases corporate buyer power since the business segment is excruciatingly price sensitive, well informed about the industry's price structure, purchase in larger quantities and they use the internet to force lower prices. Vacation buyers, on the other hand, have less influence over the rental terms. Because vacationers are usually less price sensitive, purchase in lesser amounts or purchase more infrequently, they have weak bargaining power.

Five Forces

Today the car rental industry is facing a completely different environment than it did five years ago. Competitively speaking, the revolution of the five forces around the car rental industry exerts some strong economic pressure that has significantly tarnished the competitive attractiveness of the industry. As a result of the economic downturn in recent years, many companies went under namely Budget and the Vanguard Group because their business infrastructure succumbed to the untenability of the competitive environment. Today, very few firms including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis return a slightly above-average revenue compared to the rest of the industry. Realistically speaking, the car rental sector is not a very attractive industry because of the level of competition, the barriers to entry and the competitive pressure from the substitute firms.

Strategic Group Mapping

As a moderately concentrated sector, there is a clear hierarchy in the car rental industry. From an economic standpoint, disparities exist from a number of dimensions including revenue, fleet size and the market size each firm holds in the market place. For instance, Enterprise dominates the industry with a fleet size of approximately 600,000 vehicles along with its market size and its level of profitability. Hertz comes in second position with its number of market shares and fleet volume. In addition, Avis ranks third on the map. Avis is among one of the companies that is having issues recovering its revenue margins from prior to the economic downturn. For instance, in 2000 Avis returned revenue of approximately $ 4.23 billion. Over the course of the next several years following 2000, the revenue of Avis has been significantly lower than that of 2000. As a way of reducing uncertainty most companies are gradually lessening the level of dependency on the airline industry and emerging the leisure market. This trend may not be in the best interest of Hertz since its business strategy is intricately linked to the airports.

Key Success Factors

There are many key success factors that drive profitability throughout the car rental industry. Capacity utilization is one of the factors that determines success in the industry. Because rental firms experience loss of revenue when there are either too few or too many cars sitting in their lots, it is of paramount importance to efficiently manage the fleets. This success factor represents a big strength for the industry since it lowers if not completely eliminates the possibly of running short on rental cars. Efficient distribution is another factor that keeps the industry profitable. Despite the positive relationship between fleet sizes and the level of profitability, firms are constantly growing their fleet sizes because of the competitive forces that surround the industry. In addition, convenience is one of the crucial attributes by which consumers select rental firms. That is, car rental consumers are more prone to renting cars from firms that have convenient rental and drop off locations. Another key success factor that is common among competing firms is the integration of technology in their business processes. Through technology, for instance, the car rental companies create ways to meet consumer demand by making renting a car a very agreeable ordeal by adding the convenience of online rental among other alternatives. Furthermore, firms have integrated navigation systems along with roadside assistance to offer customers the piece of mind when renting cars.

Industry Attractiveness

There are many factors that impact the attractiveness of the car rental industry. Because the industry is moderately concentrated, it puts new market entrants at a disadvantage. That is, its low concentration represents a natural barrier to entering the industry as it allows existing firm to anticipate sharp retaliations against new entrants. Because of the risks associated with entering the industry among other factors, it is not a very attractive sector of the marketplace. From a competitive standpoint, the leisure market is 90 percent saturated because of the active efforts of Enterprise to dominate this sector of the market. On the other hand, the airport terminals are heavily guarded by Hertz. Realistically speaking, entry in the industry offers low profitability relative to the costs and risks associated. For most consumers, the main determining factors of choosing one company over another are price and convenience. Because of this reason, rental firms are very circumspect about setting their rates and that generally force even the industry major players in the position of offering more to the consumers for less just to remain competitive. Hertz, for example, offers wireless internet to its customers just to add more convenience to their travel plans. Avis on the other hand, offers free weekend specials if a customer rents a car for five consecutive weekdays. Based on the impact of the five forces, the car rental sector is not a very attractive industry to potential new market entrants.

Conclusion

The rental car industry is in a state of recovery. Although it may seem like the industry is performing well financially, it is nonetheless gradually regaining its footing relative to its actual economic position within the last five years. As a way of insuring profitability, besides seeking market shares and stability, most companies throughout the chain have a common goal that deals with lowering the level of dependency on the airline industry and moving toward the leisure segment. This state of motion has engendered some fierce competition among industry competitors as they attempt to defend their market shares. From a futuristic perspective, the better days of the car rental industry have yet to come. As the level of profitability increases, I believe that most of the industry leaders including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis will be bounded by the economic and competitive barriers of mobility of their strategic groups and new comers will have a better chance of infiltrating and realizing success in the car rental industry.

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More Than Muscle Building: Why Body Building Is a Healthy Option

When people talk of body building, they automatically think of well-oiled, pumped up muscles on beach bums and gym bodies. It conjures images of tanned bodies straining under several pounds of weight and using the most state-of-the-art instruments of torture to achieve the perfect form.

This is not uncommon. Most people would not list body building as a step towards gaining and maintaining a healthy body. Exercise, maybe but not body building. However, body building does more than just create symmetry and size. It also helps strengthen the body and develop flexibility and athletic performance.

Body building can also help develop resistance and it does not hurt that it actually contributes to a better looking and well-defined body.

Alibis and excuses to stay away from bodybuilding

You must have heard of them before. People who refuse to bodybuild believe that developing muscles will make them heavier and thus, slower and that muscles will only revert to fat once you stop. These are untrue.

Muscles are the main engine that drives each movement that we make. Stronger, bigger muscles only mean that we can move better and have better flexibility. If indeed muscles can slow a person down, then sprint runners should remain thin. Bigger muscles might make you look and feel bigger, but they will not slow you down.

Muscles will never turn into fat because they are two different tissues. If training is stopped, they will shrink over time because they are not used. People who turned from muscle-bound to fat may have stopped training and increased their food consumption during that period, allowing their bodies to store more fat and burn less calories.

Seven steps to succeed in body building for health

1. Develop a goal. Nothing ever succeeded without a plan or if something did, then it must have been a complete fluke. Know what you to achieve and how you plan to do it, whether you just want to gain more muscles or lose fat, you need to have a clear goal on what you expect to get and how you'll get there.

2. Get a physical. You'll need your doctor's OK if you plan to include body building in your regimen and especially if you are a beginner. Get a thorough check up to make sure that your body is capable of the physical workout it will be undergoing. Check that your cardiovascular functions are well and steady and that you have a healthy liver and kidneys.

3. Select a gym. A no-brainer, perhaps but joining the right gym may help your routine more than you realize. Choose a gym that's conveniently located near your home or office. That way, you will have no excuse not to go. Choose a gym where you will be comfortable not only with the equipment but with the instructors as well.

If you are a reliable self-starter and prefer a little more privacy, you can also opt to have your own home gym. It's really not necessary to buy fancy equipment immediately; just start with the basics and then gradually add from there. If you start small, you can determine which equipment you need to buy as you go along. This is better than being stuck with extra equipment that you will not be using.

4. Get a program that fits your level. If you're a beginner, it's senseless to pick a bodybuilding routine that's too advanced or of going into a gym not knowing where to begin. Your body thrives on gradual change so you run the risk of injuring yourself if you try to lift more than you should. Consider your training level and your goals and then get a program that's right for you.

Try to check some information about bodybuilding routines for beginners to familiarize yourself with your options. You can check out books, magazines and websites or go to a professional and have your own routine designed specifically for you. Normally, gym memberships include this service, so you might want to ask for specifics when you join one.

5. Develop a sensible diet. Yes, you do need one. Don't think that once you start bodybuilding you can load up on sweets and salts all you like. The purpose of a bodybuilding routine is for you to lose fat and replace it with lean muscle. Proper diet will give you the right type of nutrition for energy, bone and muscle growth and recovery.

6. Don't rely too much on bodybuilding supplements. With all the promises printed on labels and the enthusiastic ads on TV, you could be tempted to just depend on supplements to do the job for you. Supplements only add to your routine and should not take the place of a proper diet and training. Only when your training level is increased should you consider taking bodybuilding supplements with your diet.

7. Don't forget your R 'n' R. Sleep and rest are very important in general health and especially when you're bodybuilding. Your body and especially your muscles, need time to recover after a good work out. Make sure you get at least 8 hours of sleep to allow your body to grow and recuperate.

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Benefits of Public Health Education

Public health education can be considered an ambiguous term. It teaches the proper way to improve one's health, and can involve only one or two people, or the population of several countries. Anything that can seriously threaten the physical, mental, or spiritual health of a wide range of people, notably due to their interactions with one another, can be classified as a threat to the community's public health. This is why public health education becomes a necessary tool to aid people against the spread of potential diseases and illnesses. Five of the most important reasons of how public health education can prove beneficial are as follows:

1. People are able to learn how to prevent the spread of communicable diseases through the training and methods being taught in education. People are able to have better access to information regarding general prevention of diseases, including the knowledge of what to do and how to act during epidemics in their area. Certain diseases have their own individual prevention methods that people should be well aware of, and employing these techniques lessens the risk of being infected by possible diseases. Through public health education, even simple things such as wearing a flu mask in particularly affected areas, or knowing when to take vaccines for a particular illness that is prominent at that time of the year, always proves very effective in limiting the number of people affected annually.

2. More people are able to access private and public medical institutions to prevent diseases or medical conditions, or to better treat them. Without the benefits of a public health education, most people may feel healthy enough and not find the need to go for a general check-up. Being aware that it is necessary to see your doctor regularly is one of the important things learned in a good public health education. Most medical hospitals and clinics offer immunization or vaccine shots during the flu seasons, or when a general outbreak of hepatitis is going around, and a public health education ensures that more people know to go to these facilities and avail of the treatment, rather lessening the amount of ill people.

3. People are able to adopt a healthier behavior to lessen the risk of diseases being spread among themselves. Keeping things cleaner around the house, opting to lessen or quit smoking altogether, or exercising more are just a few of the many different ways taught in public health education to combat sickness and improve one's lifestyle.

4. People become more aware of information relating to the disease, rather than believing in just public perception. Public health education not only deals with how to prevent illnesses, it also provides details of how a disease works, which may dispel some myths and fallacies about it in society. The HIV virus for example, can be spread through unprotected sexual intercourse, but not through activities such as kissing or touching. This also helps change a person's views towards someone infected, promoting more empathy rather than discrimination.

5. People are able to help and contribute to disease prevention by supporting or volunteering at health care facilities. Public health education is more than just spreading information; It also calls people to actively participate in aiding others. To be able to protect one's health, it is also necessary to protect the health of other people around you, and helps foster a more close-knit community and a better sense of camaraderie.

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Future Soldiers – What Can You Bring To Basic Training?

The most commonly asked questions recruits ask today is "What Can You Bring to Basic Training?" There are several things you can pack up for boot camp but you don't want to forget these items such as running shoes, a cell phone, stationery supplies, a debit card, cash and also civilian clothes. After all, you want to have the best experience as possible with the least amount of problems in basic training. Here are some of the few things your allowed to take with you to boot camp.

Running shoes. You can bring your own running shoes to basic. You can bring your running shoes (tennis shoes) but it'll be up to your drill sergeants on whether they'll let you wear them or not. Some drill sergeants will make you buy the shoes that they sell at reception. It depends on where you go to training and some drill sergeants let Soldiers wear their own shoes and they did not have to buy them.

Cell Phones. You can bring your own cell phone but it'll be up to the drill sergeant's decision if you'll receive any phone privileges (cell phone or phone booth). You can keep your cell phone during reception but once you're at basic then you'll have to hand them over to the drill sergeants. You will not get them back until you start white phase or every other Sundays.

Stationary Supplies. You can take your own stationery supplies such as paper, envelopes and stamps or you can buy them while you are at basic training. You have the freedom to write letters every night and have it sent out to a family or friend every day. You will have to do 10 push ups for every letter that you receive during mail call which is worth it.

Debit Card. It is highly recommended that you bring your own debit card tied to your account. You will have to resupply later for personal hygiene's and to withdraw money from the ATM to pay for haircuts at the PX. Some things are not free in training and you'll have to reach into your pocket sometimes to pay for the basics such as a haircut or if you want to buy a class yearbook.

Address book. Bring an address book listing your family members and next to kin. It's very important to have a mailing address of someone so that you can send letters and add them to your life insurance, emergency contact and beneficiary when you in-process during the reception battalion.

Cash. Bring a few extra dollars but not more than $ 50 dollars. You may never know what might happen during your journey to boot camp. You might need to get a cab or buy something to eat.

Civilian Clothes. Bring the clothes on your back because on the first day you arrive to the reception battalion, the Army will issue you a lot of uniforms and gear. You will wear your PT's or ACU uniform. You are not allowed to wear your civilian clothes anymore and you must dress according to the uniform of that day.

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Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles – Ready And Custom-Made Options

Many-a-times, a birth defect or an accident restricts one's mobility confining the person to a wheelchair. This mobility vehicle helps you get around the house reducing your dependence on your relatives. However, for longer distances and outdoor travels, the wheelchair is not so much a convenient option.

For this reason, physically handicapped persons prefer to stay indoors. However, at some point or the other, one may find the need to travel outdoors in a vehicle. In such cases, a wheelchair accessible vehicle is your best bet.

Readily-available Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles

Trying to increase convenience to physically handicapped individuals, several automobile manufacturers are manufacturing ready vans with several features.

Firstly, the two main types of wheelchair accessible vehicles included those that allow the disabled to ride as a passenger (with someone else to drive) and those that let them take control as the driver. In the latter, the original driver's seat is removed so as to accommodate the wheelchair. A few have swivel seats so that the person can be simply transferred onto it.

The vans also differ in the number of passengers they can accommodate at a time. For instance, there are options such as 2 passengers and 1 wheelchair or 4 passengers and 1 wheel chair. It depends on the size of the vehicle.

Secondly, they are fitted with wheelchair ramps and lifts to allow easy entry and exit. The ramps are operated manually or automatically in those fitted with a motor. There are in-floor and foldout ramps. In-floor ramps fold into the floor. In-floor ramps take up a lot of space and hence reduce the headroom space. This makes it quite uncomfortable for taller passengers.

There are joysticks in place of pedals and controls to make acceleration and steering easier. Inside the vehicle, there are docking systems and straps to lock the wheelchair in place so that it does not move when the vehicle gets into motion. Try to get a test drive of the vehicle to make sure it is comfortable to handle.

Make Your Minivan Wheelchair Accessible

If your budget does not permit a new car, you can think about converting your existing vehicle into a wheelchair accessible car. In order to do this, you will first have to consider the entry point. Rear and side entries are the two most common options. The former is a great option for a small minivan while the rear entry makes a good choice for a larger vehicle. There are motorized ramps as well that lift the person up the ramp and into the vehicle.

You also want to consider the type of wheelchair being used. A manual one sits lower while an electric powered one is higher as the electric motor sits below the seat. You also need to give the company the dimensions of the chair. If there is not much headroom to accommodate one, the converting company will generally lower the floor or will raise the roof, whatever is most feasible.

You will also have to remove a few passenger seats to accommodate the wheelchair. It depends on the entry point you choose. Most automobiles have seat latches that allow you to do so.

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How To Tell If Someone Is An Entrepreneur

One thing defines an entrepreneur – constructive action.

Typically, they're the salesman – doing * everything * to get people to buy their stuff. We all have the image in our heads; the "wheeler-dealer", picking any opportunity to try and exploit (and other people) for profit.

Indeed, the term "entrepreneur" seems to have drifted around the present lexicon – from "something you did" (typically to improve people's lives) into a blend of "money mad hustler" and "someone who doesn't 'follow the rules' ".

The reality is the modern meaning could not be further from the truth.

Entrepreneurship isn't a vocation or job. It's not a label which you apply to yourself in order to make yourself more endearing to a particular party, or clientele … it's a way of doing things.

Many "entrepreneurial" types actually have jobs. They'll never admit they are "entrepreneurs", although they exhibit all the traits of one. The question is what these traits are, and whether you – or someone you know – has them.

What Is An "Entrepeneur" ?

Entrepreneur is a word derived from French – loosely describing a "problem solver".

Whilst its connotation has changed over the years, the premise persists – an "entrepreneur" is someone who creates a "widget" and has the ability to encourage other people to buy it.

What this "widget" is can be a commercial product, service or idea .

It's actually interesting … some of the greatest "entrepreneurs" of history actually had nothing to do with money. They were completely focused on the development of a particular "result" and committed themselves whole-heartedly to its realization.

Whether this meant conquering the Persian empire (Alexander), developing the light bulb (Edison) or creating stable PC systems (Gary Kildall), conquering the Aztec empire (Cortez), the term "entrepreneur" really denotes someone who wants to build something.

The BIG difference between "original" entrepreneurs and the swathes of new-age idiots (who typically aggrandize a hedonistic lifestyle + seem to have an infatuation for "crypto") is that the former were committed to a single profession, and manage to " leverage "that through the development of increasingly ambitious" projects.

These projects could be anything … but they all had a core "reason" to exist. This reason was what drove the originator to pursue the endeavor, and continue even when it was questionable whether it was even "possible" or not. Obviously, the reason we remember them is that they not only discovered it was "possible", but entirely feasible … hence their success.

How To Tell If Someone Is One

The typical sign is they will do strange things …

  • interest in esoteric ideas
  • pursuit of interests not directly correlated to the accumulation of wealth
  • strong displays of passion for particular subjects
  • immersive nature with different ideas (trying to recreate historical events etc)

The point is that REAL entrepreneurs are not typically concerned about money at all .

Their primary concern is the creation of a "thing". What that thing is, is determined by either their character or interests … but in every instance of someone who's achieved a large amount of success, they were completely and utterly focused on doing "their" thing no matter what.

This is actually important.

The modern world seems to have every 18 year old male wanting to be an "entrepreneur" – like it's a badge of honor or something. If you're not "growing", you're "dying" … right?

The truth is that our society has become so focused on convenience that the majority of these money-grabbing idiots have absolutely no business even considering themselves "entrepreneurs".

They have no experience, no skills and are only latching onto the latest "fad" in order to escape the mediocrity which has come to pervade the West's consumerist culture.

Entrepreneurship typically follows YEARS of interest in a particular subject. It typically follows HUGE investments of time & energy into the cultivation of a skill set, experience and "involvement" in a particular space.

Most importantly – entrepreneurship is about doing something "your way".

Stay Clear Of Modern Idiots

The BIGGEST problem I continually see from the hoards of idiots is they are following following a "book" or some other "rules" on "how" to be an entrepreneur.

I see it all the time … guys reading all the biographies, neural studies, latest books from the big wealthy fat cat – all trying to discover the "secret" to massive success.

What's ironic is that all of this stuff just works on the "outside" of the issue – the same people who read all the "stuff" end up with the SAME questions … "what do I sell?" – "how do I know if I'm going to make money on a product? " – "What's the secret to getting rich?".

  • If you have to ask "what do I sell", you're not an entrepreneur.
  • If you have to listen to what a "successful" person has to say on a subject, you're not an entrepreneur.
  • If you have to consider all the "rules" put forward by others, you're not an entrepreneur.

The point is that the modern world is chock-full of wannabe losers. Even the "successful" ones aren't actually truly successful – they may have made a bunch of money, but what did they actually achieve ? The answer is relatively little (or even nothing).

The truth is that if you want to "be" an entrepreneur, you have to get to work.

EVERYBODY has their own work. Some are models. Some are footballers. Some are computer programmers. Some are painters.

The "trick" is to do ANYTHING in order to get moving forward in an industry; Clean the floors if necessary.

Once you start to gain some progress, the "entrepreneurial" stuff comes from leveraging any progress made within it – either to create & market a product, or to help a market better appreciate the potential of another device / product.

Traits Of "Real" Entrepreneurs

  • Quiet (or at least reserved )
  • Fully capable of embracing failure (indeed, using it as a spur to change / adapt)
  • Working constantly on different elements within their "industry" (again, everyone has a place)
  • Unafraid of social constructs (just because someone said it doesn't make it true)
  • Laser focused on what "they" want to do (you want to bring sustainable farming to Africa? This is the type of thing a "real" entrepreneur will actually do)
  • Unafraid to give freely (most "entrepreneur" types are not attached to money at all … typically not having much until they find mercantile success)

If you haven't worked it out, the core is purpose.

The modern world has very little emphasis on purpose; rather it focuses on productivity.

Nothing wrong with this, but it devoids most people of their passion. It's good for GDP and McDonald's – but bad for the creativity lying latent within a large number of people.

If you want to adopt "entrepreneurial" traits, the key is to become attuned to a particular "purpose" – through which you're able to invest your entire life.

If you're just looking at Ferrari's and thinking that you "kind of want to become rich" – entrepreneurship is not going to do that. It's a very difficult road, with only the most persistent and enduring surviving.

You need to get to work, and only then will you discover hidden opportunities into which you're able to apply your expertise, experience or network to build something of real value to the world. This real value is then absorbed by the market, who'll either pay handsomly for it – or reject it. This is pretty-much what determines whether someone could be considered an "entrepreneur" or not.

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Four Types of Marketing For Small Businesses

As a small business owner, you most likely spend quite a large amount of time trying to discern new ways to gain customers. Marketing can be a fun or stressful business. They key is to understand the types of marketing.

Instead of sending your marketing budget in many different directions, you can choose a specific type and be consistent with it. You will quickly see that your marketing budget pays off much more quickly.

Here, you will find information on four of the main types of marketing. This way, you will be able to choose the marketing actions that will work best for your business. You will then be able to point your marketing budget in the right direction.

1. Blanket marketing is a type that is often used by larger business. Blanket marketing means that you spend money advertising to everyone. Many people choose to do blanket marketing by advertising in magazines or newspapers. You will not really have control of who sees your advertising, but you will have the potential to reach many people.

The downside to blanket marketing is that it can be quite expensive, and you could be wasting money marketing to people who may never become your customers at all. Blanket marketing is best for those who have plenty of funds available and who feel that they will be able to gain many customers from the plan.

2. Targeted marketing is a method in which you choose a certain demographic and only market to them. This could mean that you advertise to everyone in a certain area. Alternatively, you could advertise to everyone in a certain age range.

The great thing about targeted marketing is that you will have a much better chance at getting customers since you will be advertising to the types of people who would most likely become customers. The downside is that it will take a little legwork to determine who your target is and then find the right way to advertise to them.

3. Social media marketing could be called the new kid in town since it is relatively a young concept. With this marketing, you use any one of the many popular social media sites to advertise your company. You can also use a daily blog to garner business.

The downside to this type of marketing is that you will be sending your information out to many people who may not be interested at all. With blogs, you will have to take the time to keep the blog up to date. Otherwise, people may stop reading it.

4. The last type of marketing is not marketing at all. There are not upsides to this. It may seem like a way to save money, but when your business fails, you will actually lose a great deal of money. It is extremely important to find marketing funds within your budget.

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Medical Coding Statistics and How It Helps in Public Health Improvement

Medical coding is like translation. People behind medical coding take medical reports and convert them into a set of codes. In a medical claim, these codes play a great role. In this article, we are going to take a look at medical coding and the relevant statistics. Read on to know more.

The Reason to Code Medical Reports

You may be wondering why we need to code medical reports. Isn't it enough to just describe the diagnoses, symptoms, and procedures? After all, these reports can be sent to an insurance company.

According to the reports released by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), over the past 12 months, there were more than 1.4 billion patients who visited hospitals. This includes patients who visit emergency rooms, outpatient facilities, and physician offices.

Suppose there are only 5 pieces of coded info against each visit. It would be a whopping 6 billion pieces of info that the professional would need to transfer each year. This estimate is unrealistically low, though. So, medical coding helps make it easier to transfer a lot of data.

Aside from this, coding helps you distribute the same documents between different medical facilities. For instance, the code of strep throat is the same whether you are in Hawaii or Arkansas. With the help of uniform data, you can perform research and analysis in an efficient manner. Health and government agencies make use of the info in order to keep an eye on health trends. For instance, if the CDC needs to analyze the spread of viral pneumonia, the ICD-10-CM code can help them.

Lastly, coding helps you find out if a treatment is effective. As a matter of fact, this is a lot more important for large facilities, such as hospitals.

Now, we should go ahead and find out more about 3 types of code. If you are a medical coder, you will find this information pretty useful.

Three Types of Code

ICD

ICD is short for the International Classification of Diseases. These diagnostic codes provide a uniform vocabulary to describe the possible causes of death, illness or injury. In the 1940s, the World Health Organization (WHO) established this code. Over the past 60 years, it's has been revised many times.

These codes help represent the diagnosis and the condition of the patient. As far as the billing process goes, these codes help professionals determine the necessity of medical treatment.

CPT

CPT is short for Current Procedure Terminology. These codes are used in order to document most of the medical procedures at a doctor's office. The American Medical Association (AMA) published and maintained this code. So, AMA reserves the copyrights and updates the codes on a yearly basis.

HCPCS

HCPCS refers to the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System. It's also known as "hick picks". Primarily, HCPCS codes correspond to equipment, procedures, and services that CPT codes don't cover, which includes medicines, drugs, ambulance rides, prosthetics, and medical equipment.

So, this was an introduction to medical coding. Hope you will find this guide helpful.

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